THE TIME OF ARCHITECTURE

PREHISTORIC TIMES (11,600-3,500 BC)

As humans had a nomadic lifestyle, they didn’t develop a more complex architecture until 4,000 BC, when agrarian societies appeared. Before that, they lived in caves and shelters with fireplace.


ANCIENT EGYPT (3,500-900BC)

The architecture is characterized by colossal temples and tombs, made with granite and limestone, then decorated with hieroglyphics, carvings and paintings. On the other hand, houses were made with  blocks of sun-baked mud.


CLASSICAL (1200 BC-476 AD)

It refers to Ancient Greece and Anciente Rome style. They introduced symmetry and proportion into architecture. Inside this period we can find 3 divitions:

 Greek: It used Doric columns to build temples like the Parthenon in Athens.

Hellenistic: It was the most powerful period for the Greek Empire, it used Ionic and Corinthian columns for temples. This period ended with the Conquest of Rome.

Roman: They were heavily influenced by Greek and Hellenistic architecture. They invented concrete that allowed them to develop infraestructures.


BYZANTINE (527-565 AD)

It was leaded by the emperator Justinian. This architecture swaped from stone to brick and they would use domed roofs, elaborate mosaics, and classical forms. This period mixed eastern and western traditions.


ISLAMIC (7-8th Century)

Tightly related to religion, its ornaments were highly distinctive, as they couldn’t use human or God face.

ROMANESQUE (800-1200 AD)

It was influenced by Roman architecture, therefore its structures are of magnificient dimensions.


GOTHIC (1100-1450 )

Its most relevan characteristic is the pointed arch, as well as building elements such as columns, arches and ribs. Gothic stained glass windows are one of the most striking elements of Gothic religious buildings.


RENAISSANCE (1400-1600)

Architects of this period were inspired by the proportions of the Classical period, this return to the Roman and Greek architecture was considered an awakening.

A very important architect was Andrea Palladio, did not imitate the Classical Order of architecture but his designs were “in the manner” of ancient designs.


BAROQUE (1600-1830)

The architecture of the opulence, it used complex shapes, extravagant ornaments and a large variety of color.

Some architects were:


ROCOCÓ (1650-1790)

It was influenced by Baroque, by performing in a more graceful way. They would use decorative designs with scrolls, vines, shell-shapes, and delicate geometric patterns.

A very important architect was:


NEOCLASSICISM (1730-1925)

Architects quitted opulence and came back to the Classical ideals, therefore the buildings they constructed during this period followed the Classical orders.

Andrea Palladio was a huge inspiration for this movement, as he had recovered the Classicals in the Renaissance. Architects from this period expected to do the same.


20th CENTURY

ART NOVEAU / MODERNISM (1890-1917)

This movement was against industralization, it wanted to show the human abilities in front of the machine performance.

Gaudi is known to be one of the first modernist architects


BEAUX ARTS (1895-1925)

It combines Renaissance and Classical Ideas, giving as a result an ordered, symmetric and grandious architecture with elaborated ornaments.


FUTURISM (1900-1914)

Movement and fluidity are the main characteristics. It also finds balance between cience and nature.


NEO-EGYPTIAN (19th Century)

Egyptian ideas applyed to modern buildings.


NEO-ROMANESQUE (19th Century)

Romanesque ideas mixed with modern structures.


NEO-ARABIC (19th Century)

Islamic architectured applyed to modern buildings.


ECLECTICISM (19th Century)

Architecture that mixes historical elements to create something new.


NEO-GOTHIC (1905-1930)

Gothic ideas applyed to modern buildings. Appearance of skyscrapers.


ART DECO (1925-1937)

It uses geometric forms, such as rectangles to from the façades, its ornaments are curved.


MODERNIST STYLES (1900-Present)

It represents innovation and the desire of an utopy.

BAUHAUS

Emphasis on function, little ornamentation, and a fusion of balanced forms and abstract shapes.

DE STIJL / NEOPLASTICISM

Netherland’s simplicity

CONSTRUSCTIVISM

Combined technological innovation with a Russian Futurist influence.

EXPRESSIONISM

Organic architecture.

FUNCTIONALISM

Architecture must reflect a purpose and function.

MINIMALISM

Simple architecture without ornaments.

INTERNATIONAL STYLE

Simple geometry and a lack of ornamentation.

METABOLISM

Japanese movement that mixed megastructures with organic biological growth.

BRUTALISM

Characterized by rigid geometric styles and unusual shapes.

HIGH-TECH

Mixes technology and building design.

DECONSTRUCTIVISM

Absence of harmony, continuity, or symmetry in buildings.


POST MODERNISM (1972-2000)

This architecture was against the formality and lack of variation in Modern arquitecture. It wanted to create novelty.


NEO-MODERNISM AND PARAMETRICISM

It is refered to today’s architecture. It is a response to Post-modernism, neo-moderism tries to be as simple as possible.


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