THE EXPERIENCE OF ARCHITECTURE. BASIC CONCEPTS.
The Genious Loci is the set of elements that characterize and identify a place. It’s spirit.
The building is in juxtaposition or in abstraction regarding the place.
The building integrates with its surroundings.
Is a nod to the place, integration is done by reinterpreting its elements. It shows sensitivity to the place.
The relationship between the building and the place is justifiable, understable.
The objective of architecture is divided into two parts, the creation of space and the creation of the limits of that space.alois riegl
Architecture is the studied construction of spaces. The continuous renovation of the architecture comes from the evolution of the concepts of space.louis kahn
Closed and compact because in the past walls were very thick, as they hadn’t invented yet new techniques to transfer the loads.
In the Renaissance: closed space that followed the Classical rules, it had at least one axis of symmetry.
In the Baroque: Classical heritage, it experimented with spaces with tension (2 axes in the ellipse).
They do not exist until they are lived in. Closely linked to the function.
The Modern Movement creates a new form of use of space, where everything flows.
-The space of modernity: Raumplan.
-The wrightian fluid space.
-The universal Miesian space.
-Double height spaces of Le Corbusier
The entire building space is unique and continuous. The concept of free section is born, ending the tyranny of the horizontal plane.
“Utilitas” of Vitruvio
You have to ask yourself what you have to build to satisfy a function.
Its roots are in the Industrial Revolution. Form is a direct consequence of its function. Beauty came from the mechanical efficiency and not for the search of beauty.
The form takes on a biological sense and adapts itself to the living functions which must be carried out in the environment adapted to human activities.
Utility has an aim. We might mix the meaning of beauty and utility, because something can be considered beautiful when is useful and suitable.
Beauty means to make visible the utility. Defining what is useful can become a moral problem.
The way things are distributed.
|RHYTHM||Repetition of shapes in space. The rhythm sets a time.|
|AXIALITY||Linear element that marks a direction and distributes the space or elements around it.|
|SIMMETRY||Regular arrangement of parts or points of a figure in relation of a center, axle or plan.|
|HIERARCHY||Relationship of supremacy of an element over others.|
|MODULE||An unitary element that serves as a proportional unit.|
|GRID||Composition based on a grid of axes serving as a guide.|
|MOVEMENT||The irregularity of the forms and the variants of the order inspire the idea of displacement.|
|UNIT||Relationship of the parts as a whole, nothing should be removed or added.|
|CENTRALITY||Organization of space around a center that creates attraction towards it. Is a focal center.|
|BALANCING||Relationship between the elements. If the elements are equal and symmetrical: static equilibrium, if they are compensated by geometry, color… :dynamis equilibrium.|
|LIMIT||Edge of the elements of the compositionwhere there is a change from the rest.|
|LIGHT||It is very important, it gives us a different perception of an element. The more natural light, the better.|
|CONTRAST||Remarkable difference between elemtes to produce a dynamic effect on the composition.|
|COLOR||Chromanic manifestation of the elements to be used.|
|TEXTURE||Surface finishing, it gives us a different final perception of an element.|
|PROPORTION||Harmonic relation of dimentions according to mathematical or geometrical rules.|
Venustas is a book written by Vitruvio, which the architects of the Renaissance used to create thir infraestructures.
|SCALE||Relation between the size of a building and the size of the human being.|
MATERIALITY AND STRUCTURE
In the process of technological evolution, materials and technology are replaced by new ones but simbols are maintained, that means we do the same things but with different objects. Our materials can come directly from nature, can be transformed or even made totally by the human race.
TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION
In roman times:
Extraordinary avaliability of materials and manpower, but they were not specialized. The arch and vault are the coverage and the walls are the basic support. They use lime concrete and formwork to built. In order to maintain the structure, the supports must be thick an very solid.
The romanesque architecture used barrel vaults reinforced by arches to create the roofs. The walls are also thick and reinforced with buttresses.
Then they replaced the barrel vaults with groin vaults, so the rigidity didn’t depend on the walls anymore as the loads were passing directly to the pillars. The construction had clear loadbearing parts (arches, pillars, buttresses) and other parts to enclosure (walls between buttresses).
In the Gothic period:
Architectures solves the problem using pointed archs, rib vauly¡ts, pinnacles, flying buttresses and buttresses.
In modern times we have the Computer Aid Design (CAD) and the Building Information Modeling (BIM), both of them represent an innovation in architecture. Just like the 3D printer, which has started to be used to construct structures.